The bark of younger trees is gray to brown and smooth. Later, it is marked with narrow corky ridges and has knoblike or warty projections. Disease often causes thick clusters of twigs to form on the branches of trees. These commonly are referred to as "witch's brooms." The tree grows in rich, moist soil, but also is found on a variety of soils including rocky hillsides. Except for the northeastern corner of the state, this tree has been reported from most counties in Ohio. The wood is soft and weak, and its use is limited to cheap and rugged products. Various birds and mammals feed on the berries after they ripen in autumn.